- Ischemia - when the brain fails to work
- Heart and kidney
- legs and spinal cord
Ischemia is a condition in which some bodies delivered enough oxygen;Most often this disorder affects the heart or brain. This occurs when the blood flow to a particular organ is blocked, or when the blood that enters the body is very low in oxygen. Oxygen is necessary for the normal functioning of all tissues of the body, so ischemia can lead to significant damage or even the cessation of the work of certain organs.
- Sickle cell anemia
In sickle-cell cell anemia take an irregular shape( the shape of a sickle, or the new moon) and easier to form clots, blocking the influx of oxygenated blood to the heart, lungs, or brain. In rare cases, clots can block the flow of blood to other organs, such as the liver or kidneys, also causing them significant damage. Most people who have sickle cell disease diagnosed have to regularly take anticoagulants to prevent ischemia.
- Ventricular tachycardia Tachycardia - the body at its limit?
Ventricular tachycardia is a series of sudden heart rate abnormalities that can lead to malfunctioning of the heart or, in the most severe cases, to its complete stop. One of the complications of ventricular tachycardia may be ischemia, since irregular heart contractions restrict the flow of oxygen to various organs. The continued restriction of oxygen supply leads to severe and often irreversible tissue damage.
- Compression of blood vessels
The growth of various formations in the body can lead to the contraction of blood vessels. Thus, a tumor can clamp both small veins and large arteries, and limit the influx to the tissues of blood rich in oxygen, which will lead to ischemia. In the absence of other causes, episodes of ischemic disease may indicate the presence of cancer or a large benign tumor.
- Blood clots
Blood clots can be formed due to a large number of platelets, or as a result of surgical procedures, as well as when taking drugs that increase blood coagulability. Long-term immobilization can also cause the formation of blood clots. In very rare cases, blood clots form in the legs during long flights, causing an almost immediate onset of ischemia.
- Low blood pressure
Reduced blood pressure in heart disease indicates that the body's tissues do not get enough oxygen. In the absence of diagnosis and treatment, this can lead to the development of ischemia.
- Congenital heart disease
The risk of developing ischemia is particularly high in people with congenital heart disease, as well as those who underwent surgery for the treatment of various heart diseases.
Types of ischemia
There are several types of ischemia;Their names are usually associated with a site of the body to which one or another variety of this disease disrupts the flow of blood and, as a consequence, oxygen. For example, distinguish such violations of this type, as ischemia of the upper limbs, legs, stomach, intestines, and so on.
ischemia of the optic nerve
ischemia of the optic nerve, which is sometimes also referred to as ischemia-eye - a condition in which the functioning is impaired optic nerve. A person can see by the fact that the optic nerve delivers pulses from the eyes to the brain where they are interpreted as images. The optic nerves are made up of millions of fine nerve fibers that, with their appearance, as well as functions, resemble wires. Numerous blood vessels nourish the optic nerve with blood, saturated with oxygen and a variety of useful substances. If the optic nerve is broken, normal vision will become impossible.
Some ophthalmologists call ischemia of the eye a stroke of the optic nerve and, in a certain sense, this is true, because the stroke is also associated with the cessation of blood flow to tissues that constantly need oxygen - only with this disorder the brain suffers, and not the optic nerves.
There are two types of ischemia of the eye:
- Anterior optic neuropathy is a violation in which the flow of blood to the anterior part of the optic nerve is limited or stopped;
- Rear optic neuropathy is a much less common type of this type of ischemia, in which blood supply to the posterior part of the optic nerve is impaired.
Eye ischemia can be caused by a temporary decrease in blood pressure, which can be caused by a variety of factors. The most common diseases that increase the likelihood of this type of ischemia development are:
- Diabetes mellitus;
- rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications ;
- Shingles Lishay is not only an infectious disease ;
- Severe forms of hypertension;
- Gastric ulcer;
- Some heart diseases;
Symptoms of ischemia of the optic nerve can be a sudden loss of vision in one eye and a clouding of visible objects( usually patients first notice these signs one morning after awakening).Even before the appearance of vision problems, there may be signs such as weakness and general malaise, fever, pain in the temples, neck, and painful sensations when chewing.
In case you suddenly lost vision, you should immediately consult a doctor. He will check the visual acuity, measure the intraocular pressure, and also with the help of a special device will assess the condition of the optic nerve. Sometimes other procedures are required, for example, fluorescent angiography.
To treat ischemia of the optic nerve, it is usually necessary to treat the underlying disease that caused it;In many cases it allows controlling the manifestations of ischemia and preventing further deterioration of vision. Sometimes, the use of corticosteroids is also required. Corticosteroids - what are these substances and how they affect the human body to prevent damage to the healthy optic nerve.
Methods of treatment
Certain methods are used to prevent or treat ischemia. People with an increased risk of heart attack or blood clots usually receive appropriate medications to reduce the likelihood of developing ischemia. A diet can be recommended for lowering cholesterol in the blood. Ventricular tachycardia can be controlled with special medications, as well as an implanted pacemaker or defibrillator. Surgical correction of birth defects can help with structural disorders that hamper the flow of blood to the organs. If the underlying cause of ischemia is a tumor, surgery or treatment with potent medicines may be required.
Ischemia in pregnant women and children
Many types of ischemia are most common in middle-aged and elderly people. Ischemia is very rarely diagnosed in pregnancy, but its most dangerous types, especially coronary heart disease, can lead to serious consequences for the health of the mother and fetus. To reduce the likelihood of serious problems during pregnancy, you should undergo a thorough medical examination before conception of the child. This is especially important for those who have serious chronic diseases( for example, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension), which are associated with an increased risk of ischemia. Those in whose family history there is ischemic heart disease are also strongly advised to undergo a screening.
Pediatric ischemia is also, fortunately, a rather rare phenomenon. However, newborn children may have such a dangerous form of this disorder, as ischemia of the brain( in particular, periventricular ischemia).Most often, it is diagnosed in premature infants, and its main reason is the lack of oxygen during this or that period of intrauterine development. As a result, blood flow to certain areas of the brain is disturbed. If such ischemia is not treated, it can lead to serious health problems in the child in the long term.