- Hyperpigmentation: Causes and Treatment
- manifestations Factors
Hyperpigmentation - it is a common condition in which some areas of the skin become darker. Typically, hyperpigmentation is harmless and is observed in representatives of all races. This is caused by excessive production of melanin, the dark pigment
Hyperpigmentation of skin may extend over large areas of the skin, or may be localized in certain areas such as the face and hands or on. The most common types of hyperpigmentation are lentigo( they are also often called age spots) and melasma. With timely and proper treatment with hyperpigmentation can be reduced and controlled.
Lentigo is, as a rule, dark, unevenly colored areas of the skin. Usually they appear on those parts of the skin that are often exposed to sunlight.
Melasma is similar to age spots, but it is caused by changes in the hormonal background and can appear wherever sunlight rarely hits. Melasma is often associated with pregnancy or taking certain medications
What is melanin
This substance is produced by melanocytes of the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanin is a class of pigments responsible for skin color, eyes and hair. The distribution and types of melanin that are present in the body are determined genetically - as well as the color of the skin, eyes and hair. When exposed to sunlight Melanin acts as a natural sunscreen Sunscreen: not only for the beach .It converts ultraviolet rays into energy, reducing the number of free radicals that can damage the cells of the body. Excess or uneven distribution of melanin can be caused by sun, hormones, or medicines.
When the body starts the aging process, processes performed within cells, slowing down, and skin resilience and renewal decreases. Damage to the skin or injury from burns( including sunburn) and blisters can lead to a temporary loss of skin pigment. When the layers of the skin are restored, the melanocytes are not evenly distributed in them. When the production of melanin begins again, the uneven distribution of melanocytes leads to the appearance of lentigo.
hormones( including synthetic) and drugs can increase the production of melanin. Melasma is most often called hyperpigmentation caused with pregnancy. However, this type of hyperpigmentation can also be associated with the use of birth control pills or thyroid medications. Thyroid treatment - what methods are available? .Hormonal changes affect hormones that stimulate melanocytes, thus causing hyperpigmentation. Melasma, as a rule, is temporary and passes when the hormonal balance is restored.
Treatment of hyperpigmentation
Although hyperpigmentation in most cases, the need for its treatment can be due to cosmetic causes. There are many different treatments for hyperpigmentation.
Glycolic acid is the best alpha-oxyquilot for the treatment of hyperpigmentation due to its small, water-soluble molecules that penetrate the epidermis relatively easily. Glycolic acid is obtained from sugar cane;It helps exfoliate dead cells, and stimulates the synthesis of collagen, which helps to restore and rejuvenate the skin. In addition, glycolic acid improves skin hydration and improves skin tone.
High concentrations of glycolic acid can cause burns and irritation, so use caution.
Arbutin derived from Bearberry is a non-phenolic alternative to hydroquinone. Arbutin is used to treat overactive melanocytes, which cause hyperpigmentation. Arbutin has a double effect: it inhibits the activity of melanocytes and promotes the breakdown of melanin in the epidermis. With regular use of alpha-arbutin, the spots of hyperpigmentation fade and become almost invisible.
Retinol is a one of the most commonly used treatment for hyperpigmentation forms of vitamin A Vitamin A: An important element of health and beauty , which is necessary for the proper operation of cellular communication. It stimulates the renewal of the skin, promotes its hydration and recovery. Retinol penetrates the skin through the sebaceous glands, providing an antiseptic and a mild anti-inflammatory effect by stimulating the production of new cells in the deeper layers of the skin. In addition, retinol improves the production of collagen and reduces the synthesis of melanin.
Other treatment methods
For the treatment of hyperpigmentation may be used as laser therapy. Preliminary, however, should be tested on a small area of the skin to make sure that the laser does not exacerbate the symptoms.
There are various prescription creams against hyperpigmentation;in their composition typically comprises hydroquinone or tretinoin and hydrocortisone Hydrocortisone - a drug that could save the life of the patient .These drugs are effective, but in some cases cause severe skin irritation.